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  • Writer's pictureDr. Koralla Raja Meghanadh

Middle Ear Infections / Otitis media - symptoms, treatment, and home remedies

Updated: Aug 3

Dr. K. R. Meghanadh

The middle ear infection, i.e., Otitis media, is the most common type of ear infection and one of the most frequent infections in the human body. To understand why middle ear infections are so common, we must first look at the anatomy of the middle ear.

Middle Ear Anatomy

The middle ear is shaped like a room or cuboid with six walls with one cubic centimeter volume. The middle ear has bones on five sides, the sixth side being the eardrum or the tympanic membrane. The eardrum comprises three layers: an outer skin lining, a fibrous coat framework in the middle, and an inner mucous membrane.

For the eardrum to vibrate precisely as per the sound, the air pressure in the middle ear must be equal to atmospheric pressure, for which it needs a constant air supply. In other words, for it to vibrate to its total capacity to deliver good hearing, the air pressure on both sides of the eardrum must be equal. When we swallow, air travels from the back of our nose, i.e., the nasopharynx, to the middle ear via the eustachian tube, ensuring that the middle ear has a constant air supply. The middle ear has a reservoir of air in the temporal bone called the mastoid cellular system.

Middle Ear Anatomy Infections - symptoms, treatment, and home remedies and ear anatomy

Malleus, incus, and stapes

This middle ear has three bones, malleus, incus, and stapes. These bones are suspended in the air and move freely to transmit the sound signals from the middle ear to the inner ear. The three bones are like a chain connecting the eardrum and inner ear so that they can transmit the vibrations from the eardrum to the inner ear. Malleus is attached to the eardrum. Stapes bone is attached to the inner wall of the middle ear, which continues to the inner ear, forming a mobile union with the inner ear. These bones move like a piston to transmit vibrations.

Functions of the inner ear and how otitis media can affect its functions

The inner ear has fluid that will vibrate as per the sound waves transmitted from the eardrum through the middle ear bones - malleus, incus, and stapes chain. The inner ear has hair cells concerned with each frequency in our hearing range. The particular hair cell with the frequency gets stimulated when we hear the sound. Each hair cell has a micro-generator turbine at the base of the cell, which transports one electron from anion to cation, which travels to the brain through the cochlear nerve.

The middle ear infection can also spread to the inner ear, whose job is to hear through the cochlea and balance through the vestibular labyrinth. So when the inner ear is affected, we can experience loss of hearing, giddiness, or loss of balance.

Middle ear infection or otitis media symptoms treatment home remedies

Nerves that can be affected by Otitis media

The facial nerve controls facial expressions, eye closure, and a few muscles around the mouth, and it travels through the middle ear. One more nerve called the chorda tympani nerve connects taste fibers from the front part of the tongue to the brain. The facial nerve and chorda tympani nerve can be affected due to Otitis media.

Otitis media in babies

A middle ear infection is common in babies below six months. Babies below six months have small skulls to accommodate easy birth. Their little heads do not have enough space to align the eustachian tubes at an angle like in adults. The horizontal alignment of the eustachian tube increases the risk of middle ear infection as infected fluids can easily leak into the middle ear.

Babies enjoy the sweet taste of milk and prefer to sleep with it in their mouths.

Milk ferments or spoils faster due to bacteria that dwell in our mouths. The fermented milk can slip into the nasopharynx, from where it can leak into the nose or middle ear. If the spoiled milk slips into the nose, the baby can get rhinitis, i.e., the common cold. If they slip into the middle ear, they will get an ear infection. Please read our article on “What causes ear infections in a baby?” to understand more.

Otitis media in kids (one to six years)

Children can have adenoids, i.e., extra tissue formed due to allergy or viral infections at the back of the nose or nasopharynx. Adenoids are like tonsils tissue, enlarged tissue that causes problems. The nasopharynx is like a cube with 2cms on each side. The presence of adenoids in such a small area can disturb the eustachian tube, often resulting in middle ear infections in kids.

Middle Ear Infections in adults

As discussed earlier, the middle ear connects to the back of the nose, the nasopharynx, via the eustachian tube. Any infection in the back of the nose can affect the middle ear.

1. Rhinitis

The most common infection in both body and nose is rhinitis, a common cold. The infection can spread from the nasopharynx to the middle ear whenever we have a common cold. However, it is prevented as the eustachian tube is slanted. However, when we blow the nose, especially one nostril is blocked, high pressure is created in the nasopharynx pushing the fluids with high bacteria content into the middle ear through the eustachian tube.

Blowing out the nose when we have a common cold can result in a middle ear infection. 90% of middle ear infections are because of the common cold.

If the infection in the middle ear is less than two weeks in duration, it is called acute suppurative otitis media. When the disease stays for more than six weeks, it is called chronic suppurative otitis media.

2. Chronic Sinusitis

In chronic sinusitis, the infected secretions of sinusitis are pushed out from the sinuses to the oropharynx or back of the throat. The palate is a soft tissue that divides the oropharynx and nasopharynx. These liquids can seep into the nasopharynx, into the eustachian tube, and consequently into the middle ear. Please read our article “Ear pain or clogged ears with a sinus infection” to understand how chronic sinusitis can cause middle ear infections.

Middle ear infection symptoms

We can list the following as middle ear infection symptoms

  1. Severe ear pain

  2. Fever

  3. Ear discharge

  4. Deafness or block sensations

Here is how these symptoms develop and progress.

90% of middle ear infections are due to the common cold. The disease generally starts with a common cold, and the infection will progress to the middle ear at the end of the infection or in the second week. The patient will start experiencing pain and block sensation in the ear. When the middle ear has fluid or pus, the eardrum vibration is affected as it tampers the air pressure in the middle ear. As the infected fluid causes infection, inflammatory chemical mediators are released, irritating the pain nerve endings. As the fluid increases in the middle ear, the pain worsens.

The pressure in the middle ear bulges the thin papery eardrum when the fluid increases. After a limit, the eardrum bursts out, and thick watery pus emerges. As the eardrum bursts, the severity of the pain comes down. As the infection continues, pus keeps coming out of the ear.

There is a chance that the bacteria in the outer ear move into the middle ear through the perforation of the eardrum, increasing the middle ear infection. So, once the perforation happens, hearing loss increases. Most of the time, hearing loss is only around 10 to 30%.

As the infection increases, our body increases the blood supply to the ear so the WBCs can fight the infection. The tiny ear bones can get damaged during this process, and hearing loss can go to 60%, and if the infection spreads to the inner ear, the hearing loss will mostly be 100%. As pus in the ear is less, they might have a fever. Fever is a rare symptom.

Check out our article for symptoms of an ear infection. There is a possibility of having an infection in multiple parts of the ear. So this article can give you an idea, although an ENT doctor must make the diagnosis.

Middle ear infection diagnosis

An ENT doctor diagnoses a middle ear infection in the early stages by an impedance audiometry test that measures the pressure in the middle ear. If the test gives a B type of curve, which confirms fluid in the ear. When there is perforation, the impedance audiometry gives high canal volume and a B type of curve.

Treatment for middle ear infection

The primary treatment is controlling the root cause, i.e., common cold or sinusitis. If the infection is viral, then we do not use antibiotics. If the infection in the nose is for more than five days, we assume there is superadded bacterial infection, and we prescribe antibiotics. We should not allow water into the ear as the water can carry the bacteria of the outer ear into the middle ear adding up to the existing infections. An ENT doctor must treat any other coexisting factors like allergy exists. In the acute case, the disease is due to gram-positive bacteria, and the antibiotic is directed toward it.

Middle ear infection home remedies

A middle ear infection is often a secondary infection to a common cold or sinusitis. So if we use home remedies to control these infections, we can either prevent the middle ear infection or help our body fight it.

Common cold home remedies

  1. Using nose drops

  2. Steam inhalation – 5 minutes 3 times a day without a blanket

Sinusitis home remedies

We have an entire article on sinusitis home remedies. You can check out that article to understand the remedies.


Common cold or rhinitis

  1. Use nose drops when you get the common cold

  2. Steam inhalation

  3. Saltwater gargling

  4. Do not blow the nose as it creates high pressure in the nasopharynx, pushing the infection into the middle ear via the eustachian tube.


Check out our article on home remedies for sinusitis.

An article by

Dr. K. R. Meghanadh


What is the most common cause of middle ear infection?

The common cold is the most common cause of middle ear infections, which can result in the spread of disease to the middle ear through the nasopharynx. The risk of infection increases when we blow the nose, mainly if one nostril is blocked. The pressure created in the nasopharynx while blowing the nose can force fluids with high bacteria into the middle ear via the eustachian tube, causing otitis media. Chronic sinusitis also contributes to middle ear infections.

What happens if a middle ear infection goes untreated?

If left untreated, middle ear infections can cause several complications, such as the spread of the infection to adjacent areas such as the inner and outer ear. In addition, untreated middle ear infections can cause hearing loss and ruptured eardrums, which may require major surgery. In severe cases, the infection may even spread from the inner ear to the brain.

Dr. K. R. Meghanadh has observed cases where both chronic sinusitis, the root cause of middle ear infections, was also left untreated, resulting in the use of hearing aids and surgery. Hence, treating the underlying cause of middle ear infections is crucial to prevent such complications.

What are the symptoms of otitis media?

The symptoms of otitis media are severe ear pain, fever, ear discharge, and a feeling of deafness or blockage in the ear.

Generally, the infection begins as a common cold and progresses to the middle ear within two weeks. It can even occur in chronic sinusitis patients. During this stage, the patient may experience ear pain and blockage. The pain can intensify as the fluid builds up in the middle ear. Ultimately, the pressure will cause the eardrum to burst, discharging thick, watery pus. While the eardrum burst may relieve the pain, pus may drain from the ear as the infection persists. Fever is an uncommon symptom of this condition.

How can you prevent otitis media?

Otitis media can occur as a result of a common cold or chronic sinusitis. So, to prevent otitis media, it is important to address its root causes, namely, the common cold or chronic sinusitis. Fortunately, several home remedies are available to manage sinusitis and the common cold. By utilizing these remedies to control these infections, we can prevent otitis media or help our body combat it.

Read our article "home remedies for sinusitis" for more details.

You can find home remedies for the common cold by clicking here.

Does a middle ear infection require surgery?

A middle ear infection might need surgery, depending on the condition. Generally, acute infections(less than 6 weeks old) might be treated with medication and resolved without surgery. However, if the infection becomes chronic and persists for over six weeks, surgery may be necessary. Surgery may also be required if the infection does not respond to medication in either acute or chronic cases.

For instance, if there is a perforation in the eardrum that has been present for over three months, surgery to close the perforation may be required.

Similarly, if there is a bone infection that has persisted for more than three months, surgery may be needed.

How long does a middle ear infection last in kids?

A middle ear infection will last for around two weeks and can be resolved with proper treatment. But, if the infection does not resolve, it can develop into otitis media with effusion (chronic serous otitis media). In that case, surgical intervention is necessary. This surgery involves removing accumulated fluids and placing a grommet to prevent further fluid build-up.

To understand more about middle ear infections in children, we recommend you to read our article "What causes ear infections in a baby?"

Can otitis media spread?

Yes, otitis media can spread to other parts of the ear and nearby structures if it's untreated. In some cases, the infection can even spread to the facial nerve and chorda tympani nerve. So it is important to seek medical treatment to prevent the infection from spreading or causing complications.

Is otitis media viral or bacterial?

Most otitis media begin as a viral infection that subsides within five days. That is why doctors usually don't suggest any antibiotics during the early stage. But if the infection lasts more than seven days, we presume it is bacterial. Usually, this bacterial infection comes as a secondary infection or superadded infection. We treat the bacterial otitis media with antibiotics.

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